The Raspberry Pi, on the other hand, is such a versatile little board that it can act as a cheap trial NAS that—once you grow out of it—can be repurposed for something else. Great write up, was thinking about this as a project (at some stage), you've given me so much really useful information and many new tabs! Thanks to its modular structure, the range of functions can be extended at any time through plugins. But I would definitely like someone to design a nice case that holds the Pi, a specialized (smaller) IO board, a PCIe SATA adapter, a fan, and four SATA drives—ideally designed in a nice, compact form factor! I have seen the power supply 12V/2A you use for feeding 4 x Kingston SSD, but not the one for 4 x HDD. It didn’t take a lot of research to find out that the Pi 1 through Pi 3+ aren’t particularly suited for NAS work. So, follow this article step by step to turn your Raspberry Pi into a NAS Server. You can check the progress with the following command: which should give you output something like this, which shows you the status of the mirror sync: Once it’s done, instead of the above, you should see something similar to the following when you run the same command: pi@PI-0:~ $ cat /proc/mdstat Personalities : [raid1] md0 : active raid1 sda sdb 3906885440 blocks super 1.2 [2/2] [UU] bitmap: 0/30 pages [0KB], 65536KB chunk. How you will access it depends on the operating system on the computer you want to access it with. I have more hobbies than I can count, and I’m always on the lookout for new ones. The next NAS I build, I may give OMV another try. That’s what I get for not reading enough before I buy stuff, I suppose. Again, this is how I set up my own little two-disk mirror. There’s so much neat stuff out there! Is it the 1GB, 4GB or 8GB version. What about a power switch and display / indicator for status? It seemed to work in both cases, though I did my actual benchmarks for the HDDs while they were connected through a 600W power supply (overkill, I know!). I want to replace my old NAS with a low-energy but powerful replacement. A Raspberry Pi, and it is recommended that it be a Raspberry Pi 4 for better performance, although from the 2B model it will already work. Raspberry Pi 4 Network Read/Write Tests. Technically it's not required to partition before creating the array... but there are a couple small reasons it seems safer that way. If you run cat /proc/mdstat and you see a _ (underscore) instead of a U, there’s a problem with a disk that requires your immediate attention. Hi, I’m Mark. Amazing work! Once it comes back up, see if you can ping other devices both inside and outside your network. (It's single client, so synchronization primitives are less important. I am not so experienced with pi, but why didn't you consider OMV ? For example, when I was trying to format four HDDs the first time, I got: And the solution I found in this StackOverflow question was to run: I also ran into the message Device or resource busy when I tried formatting four SSDs, and it would always be a different device that was listed as the one being busy. But I decided to go all out (well, at least within a < $100 budget) and buy three more Kingston SSDs to test them in the same RAID configurations: And it was a little surprising—since the Raspberry Pi's PCI Express 1x 2.0 lane only offers around 5 Gbps theoretical bandwidth, the maximum real-world throughput you could get no matter how many SSDs you add is around 330 MB/sec. SunFounder Raspberry Pi NAS kit keeps the board at comfortable 53℃ Fans are PWM controlled and sit at 25% for the most of the time. Top of page. I linked to those in my initial Pi Compute Module 4 Review post. 1. I use ext4, and I’m creating a filesystem on the RAIDset, NOT the physical disks, so the command is: This may also take a little while. Required fields are marked *. Now, thanks to the improved throughput of Raspberry Pi 4 with USB 3.0 and Gigabit Ethernet, you can build a fully featured NAS for a fraction of the cost. SATA random IO speeds are way faster, so if you're using the Pi to serve up disk images for netboot, VMs, or even for small file sharing, it's going to be a lot faster even over a 1 Gbps port than the same drive through USB 3.0. In my case, I didn’t care about the partition size so I used the entirety of both disks with the following command: -- create : Make a new RAIDset-- verbose : Show what’s going on while the command is running/dev/md0 : The name of the RAID device you’re creating--level=mirror : Create a mirror (RAID1)-- raid-devices=2 : How many disks will be used/dev/sda /dev/sdb : The names of the disks that will be used. I just did some performance testing by uploading a 20GB file to the samba share. Connected through USB 3.0, a SATA SSD is no slouch, but if you want the best possible performance on the Pi, using direct NVMe or SATA SSD storage is the best option. I also wanted to measure thermal performance and energy efficiency, since the end goal is to build a compact Raspberry-Pi based NAS that is competitive with any other budget NAS on the market. Now, shut your Pi down, then turn off the disks. Transfer rates to and from the Pi are faster than my home wireless is, and browsing the directories on the file share is no different than browsing the directories on my PC. Obviously, it's not an option when you need to share files — you need to unmount it from one client and mount it on another. Unfortunately, after the upgrade, I discovered that iperf benchmark had very little to do with the actual practical performance. In reply to No link for the RPI4? Openmediavault works very well with USB Raid. and look for the line that says something like this (obviously your UUID will be different): ARRAY /dev/md/0 metadata=1.2 UUID=061a78a9:ceadf64b:b124c1d4:7e35ae85 name=PI-0:0. We use the OpenMediaVault software in this step-by-step guide. Once you’ve finished setting the dhcpcd.conf file, reboot your Pi. You may also want to use particular partitions instead of entire disks like I did. So why do you think it matters if your drives are USB or SATA attached? This one is the 4GB version, and running free -h during the benchmarking shows the Pi is filling up its RAM with filesystem cache data. They may have the CPU horsepower, but with the on-board Ethernet and USB sharing the same USB2 port, their performance is reportedly not all that great. Have you been able to test different SATA chipsets? The best I could get out of the old NAS was around 70Mbps. Samba is a re-implementation of the SMB (Server Message Block) networking protocol that allows Linux computers to seamlessly integrate into active directory environments. So the “Share definitions” section in my smb.conf file looks like this: Notice how the “valid users” section has the name “pi” in it – you can change that to anyone you’d like (or have more than one user on that line), but for each user on that line, you’ll need to create an account on the Pi for them. Now, with sudo, use your favourite text editor to open /etc/samba/smb.conf and go to the bottom section of the file, labelled “Share Definitions”. Otherwise, you will have to browse to it. In this tutorial we'll convert a stock Raspbian Lite OS into a NAS with two 314GB WDLabs PiDrives in a RAID-1 array. If for some reason /dev/md0 doesn’t mount properly, you may end up writing data to and filling up the SD card instead of using the disks! Thoughts on which you’d prefer? Besides this GitHub issue, I documented everything I learned in the video embedded below: The rest of this blog post will go through some of the details for setup, but I don't have the space in this post to compile all my learnings here—check out the linked issue and video for that! You can setup the drives with a little bit of command line work that I have documented on my YouTube channel. The post mdadm: device or resource busy had the solution—disable udev when creating the volume, for example: You may also want to watch the progress and status of your RAID array while it is being initialized or at any given time, and there are two things you should monitor: And if all else fails, resort to Google :). Replacing A Failed USB Disk In A Raspberry Pi-Based RAID Mirror, https://www.thingiverse.com/thing:4235287, Removing IR Filter From ESP32-Cam, Part III, Here’s A Job That’s Still Done Better By Humans, Removing IR Filter From ESP32-CAM, Part II, Recovering A Lost mdadm RAIDset In A Raspberry Pi-Based RAID Mirror, Official Raspberry Pi 4 power supply, qty 1, 4TB Western Digital Blue 3.5″ hard drive, qty 2, Vantec NexStar TX 3.5″ external USB3 enclosure, qty 2, X.X.X.X is the static IP address on your network that you want your NAS to be reachable at, YY is the CIDR representation of your subnet mask (most home or small businesses will be /24), Z.Z.Z.Z is the IP address for your gateway/router, A.A.A.A is the IP address for your primary DNS server, B.B.B.B is the IP address for your secondary DNS server (if you have one). Now that the RAIDset is built, you need to save its configuration so your Pi knows what to do with it when it boots: sudo -imdadm --detail --scan >> /etc/mdadm/mdadm.confexit. I'm going to create a RAID 10 array for my own use—you can check out the associated video linked above for the reasons why I chose RAID 10 instead of something else. Close. For the first solution, we will be using a software called Samba to build a NAS with Raspberry Pi. The limiting factor in the performance for a NAS on RPI is always going to be the 1GB Ethernet port. I have full directions for recompiling the kernel with SATA support on the Pi itself, too! Part 3: Put Together And Connect Your Hardware. To keep things fair, since it couldn't hold a candle to even a cheap SSD like the Kingston, I benchmarked it against my favorite microSD card for the Pi, the Samsung EVO+: While the hard drive does put through decent synchronous numbers (it has more bandwidth available over PCIe than the microSD card gets), it gets obliterated by the itsy-bitsy microSD card on random IO! Oh, and if you are going to create a RAIDset with more than one disk, make sure they’re all the same size, otherwise the mirror will only be as large as the smallest of the disks that are part of the RAIDset! This game was unplayable on the Pi 3 so I was interested to see if it had a performance boost on the Pi 4. In your benchmarks did you try to play with raid10 layout options (near, far, ...); I was always wondering how the impact performance for spinning HDD versus SSD. Or it's power supply? Even if you only have one router and one DNS server, you still need to type static routers and static domain_name_servers with the “s”. I use the /mnt directory as the mount point, here’s what my fstab file looks like: Notice that the UUID of the partition is the same as the UUID for /dev/md0 in the output of blkid. A average write speed of 67.4 MB/s was measured, a very good result, representing about 60% of maximum gigabit speed, and barely any less than the local write speed of 68.6.In reading, the measured speed was 105 MB/s, an astonishing figure, proving that the Pi 4 is (more or less) saturating the gigabit network. 0 7 70. If you’re here, that means you have successfully set up your Raspberry Pi, can see it on the network, and have two hard disks connected via USB. Disappointed with the results I accepted the failure and moved to other projects. It does striping and mirroring "combined" instead of one after the other. Finally, the payoff – your own home-built NAS! RAID 10 backs off that performance a bit, but it's still respectable and offers a marked improvement over a single drive. I found that I couldn’t get much more than what you’re seeing out of a regular 2.4GHz wireless connection. We have finally come to a point when disk speeds of over 100MB/s are mainstream for USB 3 Hard disks. Now, for each user account you want to grant access, you need to run the smbpasswd utility to set them up in Samba. Samba is a mature, stable, and very useful batch of software that makes it pretty easy to create simple network shares. Once that’s done and you get no errors, safely remove the enclosures from your PC. It’s good to hear that there’s a way around it (and that you haven’t had any problems after setting them up). PiNAS - the Raspberry Pi NAS: Intro:This instructable describes the build of a very compact Raspberry Pi powered two bay network attached storage (NAS).Features: Super small Easy to build Simple setup Cheap Perfect for learning about network, file system, security mech… Raspberry Pi NAS builds are exceptionally popular, and we’ve seen more than we can count over the years. Insights of RISC OS Turn on the disks, wait for them to spin up, and boot up the Pi. No link for the RPI4? Go right to the bottom of the file, and add the following lines: Make sure that you type everything exactly. One such use of the newest Raspberry Pi 4 is to run a home or office-based NAS. Raspberry Pi 4’s new USB 3.0 ports offer a massive bandwidth boost, which has a big impact on the performance of external storage devices. Sorry for the delay replying. The game runs and runs well on it. All you have to do is initiate the raid via command line as above. Did you find any solution to what you suspect is linux flushing to disk and starving the nic of io bandwidth, continuously tanking the network transfer speed? You only have one PCIe lane to work with whether you have a regular rpi4 (the USB3 is attached to it) or you have an expansion card. what tool are u using to test the transferspeed of the share? I work with storages for last ten years, maybe more, but what you do here is just excellent :). Using iSCSI (as opposed to NFS or SMB) can be much more efficient. First, let’s make sure the right stuff is installed: Since you already made sure the disks were working in Step 2, you can go ahead and create a RAID1 mirror. But a 5 port compact SATA SSD NAS would also be interesting. I set up a USB drive based NAS over a year ago and have had no problems with it. If you are planning to set up a NAS with Raspberry pi 4 it is a great option at this point. Could I send you some to try? Hi, 150Mbps isn’t too shabby at all! Also, a NAS server will ensure that your data is totally safe, and no one else can access them except you. But it's a good option if you just want to have external storage.
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