Around the time of Kristallnacht, the SS newspaper Das Schwarze Korps called for a "destruction by swords and flames." Wie gut kennen Sie sich in der Zeitgeschichte aus? "Nazis Smash, Loot and Burn Jewish Shops and Temples Until Goebbels Calls Halt". Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1996. The following is the unedited account by my father, Johannes U. Hoeber, of what he experienced on the night of November 9-10, 1938 in the large north German city of Düsseldorf . November 1938 - In der Pogromnacht kam es in Deutschland zu massiven Ausschreitungen gegen Synagogen, jüdische Geschäfte und jüdische Bürger. Personen mit dem Geburtsdatum 09.11.1938 wurden in diesem Jahr 82 Jahre alt. Über 60 Millionen Menschen waren tot. Diese Themenseite beleuchtet verschiedene Facetten der Deutschen Einheit: Wie hat sich das wiedervereinigte Deutschland entwickelt und was denken die Deutschen darüber? According to eyewitness Esther Harris: "They ripped up the belongings, the books, knocked over furniture, shouted obscenities". " The chief party judge Walter Buch later stated that the message was clear; with these words, Goebbels had commanded the party leaders to organize a pogrom. Und wie sollte es weitergehen mit einem Land, das den größten Zivilisationsbruch der Geschichte begangen hatte? English: Kristallnacht; literally "Crystal night" or the "Night of Broken Glass", also "November Pogrom", was a pogrom in Nazi Germany on November 9–10, 1938. Among the items found were glass bottles engraved with the Star of David, mezuzot, painted window sills, and the armrests of chairs found in synagogues, in addition to an ornamental swastika. The timing was no coincidence -- that evening senior Nazi figures like Joseph Goebbels had riled up crowds at events honouring Hitler's 1923 coup bid. The deportees were taken from their homes to railway stations and were put on trains to the Polish border, where Polish border guards sent them back into Germany. November 9, 1938 Joseph Goebbels demands radical action German propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels delivers a passionate antisemitic speech to the Naz Party faithful in Munich. Six million Reichsmarks of insurance payments for property damage due to the Jewish community were to be paid to the government instead as "damages to the German Nation".  Some historians believe that the Nazi government had been contemplating a planned outbreak of violence against the Jews and were waiting for an appropriate provocation; there is evidence of this planning dating back to 1937. Be forewarned , folks: Once a group in any society has been singled out for ridicule and persecution, then they can be systematically attacked, physically. Walter Buch to Goring, 13.2.1939, Michaelis and Schraepler, Ursachen, Vol.12, p. 582 as cited in Friedländer, p. 271. ... Seiten Lokaler Verein Religiöse Gemeinschaft Zentralrat der Juden in Deutschland Videos 9. 7 November — Ernst vom Rath, the Third Secretary at the German Embassy in Paris, is assassinated by Herschel Grynszpan. The violence would continue for nearly two days, and the Nazis chose to name it Kristallnacht or crystal night -- symbolizing the final shattering of Jewish existence in Germany. , The persecution and economic damage inflicted upon German Jews continued after the pogrom, even as their places of business were ransacked. Kristallnacht (German pronunciation: [kʁɪsˈtalnaχt] ()) or the Night of Broken Glass, also called the November Pogrom(s) (German: Novemberpogrome, pronounced [noˈvɛm.bɐ.poˌɡʁoːmə] ()), was a pogrom against Jews carried out by SA paramilitary forces and civilians throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938. In October 2008, this dumpsite was discovered by Yaron Svoray, an investigative journalist. What happened on November 9, 1938. It is widely assumed that the assassination was politically motivated, but historian Hans-Jürgen Döscher says the shooting may have been the result of a homosexual love affair gone wrong. "I'm Revier 16 (In precinct No. Die Niederlage Deutschlands im Ersten Weltkrieg war zugleich das Ende des Kaiserreiches: Wilhelm II. Texte beleuchten u.a. Sarah Ann Gordon sees two possible reasons for this difference. , The avant-garde guitarist Gary Lucas's 1988 composition "Verklärte Kristallnacht", which juxtaposes what would become the Israeli national anthem ten years after Kristallnacht, "Hatikvah", with phrases from the German national anthem "Deutschland Über Alles" amid wild electronic shrieks and noise, is intended to be a sonic representation of the horrors of Kristallnacht. According to Eugene Davidson the reason for this was that Hitler wished to avoid being directly connected to an event that he was aware that many of those present condemned, regardless of Goebbels's unconvincing explanation that Kristallnacht was caused by popular wrath.  A Protestant parson spoke out in 1943 and was sent to Dachau concentration camp where he died after a few days. James Wesley Rawles November 9, 2020 November 9, 2020 November 9th (1938) was “ Kristallnacht ”, in Nazi Germany. The local fire departments confined themselves to prevent the flames from spreading to neighboring buildings. 78 ed.). Interpretation of the pogrom of November 9–10, 1938 from an ethnic perspective must begin with some remarks on the applicability of the concept of ethnicity to the Jews in Germany. Munich Germany November 9, 1938 during the remembrance of the Putsch. There are six notable events in German history that are connected to 9 November: the execution of Robert Blum in 1848, the end of the monarchies in 1918, the naming of Albert Einstein as the winner of the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics, Hitler putsch attempt in 1923, the Nazi antisemitic pogroms in 1938 and the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. Kristallnacht, Nov. 9-10, 1938. November 2019, einundachtzig Jahre nach der Reichspogromnacht, in der in Deutschland Juden misshandelt, Synagogen niedergebrannt, Toras geschändet und jüdische Geschäfte zerstört wurden, fand in Deutschland eine Feier zum dreißigsten Jahrestag des Mauerfalls statt, bei der die deutsche Regie dachte, dass es endlich mal wieder Zeit wird, Juden zu kritisieren. Zeitzeugeninterviews dargestellt. Jhd.  Herschel received a postcard from his family from the Polish border, describing the family's expulsion: "No one told us what was up, but we realized this was going to be the end ... We haven't a penny. Elf Familiengeschichten zeigen, was Verfolgung, Kriege und Ost-West-Konflikt für Juden in Europa konkret bedeuten konnten. Kristallnacht was the day Hitler’s final solution “came out of the closet” with anti-Jewish riots in Germany, Austria, and the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia. After this, the Jewish community was fined 1 billion Reichsmarks (equivalent to 4 billion 2009 € or 7 billion in 2020 USD). On the night of Nov. 9, 1938, gangs of Nazis attacked Jewish businesses and religious sites around Germany, destroying thousands of stores and synagogues. After Kristallnacht, the Nazi regime made Jewish survival in Germany impossible. " Diarmaid MacCulloch argued that Luther's 1543 pamphlet, On the Jews and Their Lies was a "blueprint" for the Kristallnacht. Heinrich Himmler wrote, "I suppose that it is Goebbels's megalomania...and stupidity which is responsible for starting this operation now, in a particularly difficult diplomatic situation. , Many decades later, association with the Kristallnacht anniversary was cited as the main reason against choosing 9 November (Schicksalstag), the day the Berlin Wall came down in 1989, as the new German national holiday; a different day was chosen (3 October 1990, German reunification). That night an old friend… The German band BAP published a song titled "Kristallnaach" in their Cologne dialect, dealing with the emotions engendered by the Kristallnacht. 9. Gemeinsam gedenken wir der all jener Menschen, die vor 82 Jahren in der Pogromnacht beraubt, gequält und erniedrigt wurden. By the time the conference took place, more than 250,000 Jews had fled Germany and Austria, which had been annexed by Germany in March 1938; more than 300,000 German and Austrian Jews continued to seek refuge and asylum from oppression.  Historian Gerhard Weinberg is quoted as saying: Houses of worship burned down, vandalized, in every community in the country where people either participate or watch. On Nov. 9-10, 1938, in Germany and Austria, there was organized terrorism by Nazis against Jews, marking an escalation in the violence. 1918, 1938, 1989: Der 9.  November 1938: Dieser Tag gehört dagegen zu den dunkelsten Kapiteln der deutschen Geschichte. Wolfgang Brenner: Das deutsche Datum.  An account cited that Hitler's green light for Kristallnacht was made with the belief that it would help him realize his ambition of getting rid of the Jews in Germany. Kristallnacht (German pronunciation: [kʁɪsˈtalnaχt] (listen)) or the Night of Broken Glass, also called the November Pogrom(s) (German: Novemberpogrome, pronounced [noˈvɛm.bɐ.poˌɡʁoːmə] (listen)), was a pogrom against Jews carried out by SA paramilitary forces and civilians throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938. ("Jews out, out to Palestine!"). Wie konnte es soweit kommen? The Polish government threatened to extradite all Jews who were Polish citizens but would stay in Germany, thus creating a burden of responsibility on the German side. Four thousand were granted entry into Poland, but the remaining 8,000 were forced to stay at the border. German officials refused to accept the tendered document. November 9-10, 1938, Jews under arrest paraded at Oldenburg, Germany, during Kristallnacht  The name Kristallnacht ("Crystal Night") comes from the shards of broken glass that littered the streets after the windows of Jewish-owned stores, buildings and synagogues were smashed. The "Night of Broken Glass" On the night of November 9, 1938, violence against Jews broke out across the Reich.  Kristallnacht (also called Reichskristallnacht, Reichspogromnacht, English: Night of the Broken Glass) was a two-day pogrom that happened against Jews in Nazi Germany and parts of Austria.It was between 9 and 10 November 1938. The brutality of the pogrom, and the Nazi government's deliberate policy of encouraging the violence once it had begun, laid bare the repressive nature and widespread anti-Semitism entrenched in Germany. These laws resulted in the exclusion and alienation of Jews from German social and political life. November 1938 | ZbE", "The deportation of Regensburg Jews to Dachau concentration camp", "JudenVermoegersabgabe" (The Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies), "Kristallnacht remnants unearthed near Berlin", "NEW CAMPAIGN AGAINST JEWS NAZI OUTBREAKS", http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2013/11/8/1383904706426/goebbels-001.jpg, Reformation: Europe's House Divided, 1490-1700, "Telegram protesting against the persecution of Jews in Germany", "Millionaire Apologizes for Comparing Progressives to Nazis, Says His Watch Is Worth a '6-Pack of Rolexes, "Tom Perkins: Billionaire venture capitalist ridiculed after writing letter comparing the treatment of rich Americans to the Holocaust", "Tom Perkins Responds To Nazi Germany And 1 Percent Criticism, Says Kristallnacht Was 'Terrible Word To Have Chosen, "St. Louis Jewish cemetery rededicated after gravestones toppled by vandals - Diaspora - Jerusalem Post", "Holocaust Memorial in Boston damaged for second time this summer - The Boston Globe", "Finance minister slams Judenboykott, Kristallnacht re-enaction against Muslims in Sri Lanka", "Interview with Miriam Ron, Witness to the Events of Kristallnacht", "The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers – Kristallnacht", "Kristallnacht: A Nationwide Pogrom, November 9–10, 1938", "Kristallnacht: The November 1938 Pogroms", National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP), National Socialist German Doctors' League, National Socialist League for Physical Exercise (NSRL), Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party, German National Socialist Workers' Party (Czechoslovakia), German National Movement in Liechtenstein, National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands, National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark, Nationalist Liberation Alliance (Argentina), South African Gentile National Socialist Movement, Bund: Gemeinschaft für ein sozialistisches Leben, List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust, Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law, Anti-Jewish violence in Czechoslovakia (1918–1920), Los Angeles Jewish Community Center shooting, Overland Park Jewish Community Center shooting, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kristallnacht&oldid=992343055, Attacks on buildings and structures in Germany, Attacks on religious buildings and structures in Europe, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the ODNB, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 4 December 2020, at 19:39. Testen Sie Ihr Wissen und ordnen Sie andere Ereignisse diesen Jahren zu!  Over 1400 synagogues and prayer rooms, many Jewish cemeteries, more than 7,000 Jewish shops, and 29 department stores were damaged, and in many cases destroyed. The Nazis coordinated the attack on Jewish people and their property in Germany and German-controlled lands … Europe - Inventor's Day - in honor of Hedy Lamarr's birthday Das Datum 9. About 30,000 Jews were moved to concentration camps, and over 1,500 synagogues were pillaged and partly destroyed. World opinion thus turned sharply against the Nazi regime, with some politicians calling for war. This included guidelines for the protection of foreigners and non-Jewish businesses and property. Then it will be necessary to explain the long-term background, the environment of the year 1938, the development of the pogrom itself, and some of its larger purposes.  In a 1997 interview, the German historian Hans Mommsen claimed that a major motive for the pogrom was the desire of the Gauleiters of the NSDAP to seize Jewish property and businesses. The Nazis had been celebrating that day, as every year, the anniversary of Hitler’s 1923 putsch. "Crystal Night" is the name that's been given to the night of 9-10 November 1938. Goebbels had recently suffered humiliation for the ineffectiveness of his propaganda campaign during the Sudeten crisis, and was in some disgrace over an affair with a Czech actress, Lída Baarová. 9. Mit dem Angriff auf Polen beginnt der Zweite Weltkrieg. In almost all large German cities and some smaller ones that night, store windows of Jewish shops were broken, Jewish houses and apartments were destroyed, and synagogues were demolished and set on fire. Mit vielen Filmen, Bildern und Dokumenten. Oktober 1990 trat die DDR der Bundesrepublik bei, Deutschland war wiedervereinigt. In einer Rede am Vorabend der Feierlichkeiten zum Gedenken an den “Marsch auf die Feldherrnhalle” am 9. Did gay affair provide a catalyst for Kristallnacht? In the United States, for instance, it was this specific incident that came to symbolize Nazism and was the reason the Nazis became associated with evil. , The British historian Martin Gilbert believes that "many non-Jews resented the round-up", his opinion being supported by German witness Dr. Arthur Flehinger who recalls seeing "people crying while watching from behind their curtains". Für die Bundeskanzlerin steht der 9. A newspaper in Britain described the last move, which cut off the Jewish populace from their leaders, as "intended to disrupt the Jewish community and rob it of the last frail ties which hold it together. The letter was widely criticized and condemned in The Atlantic, The Independent, among bloggers, Twitter users, and "his own colleagues in Silicon Valley". He opined that events then taking place, such as deforestation and ozone depletion, prefigured a greater environmental catastrophe in the way Kristallnacht prefigured the Holocaust. The immediate reaction by the Gestapo was to push the Polish Jews—16,000 persons—over the borderline, but this measure failed due to the stubbornness of the Polish customs officers. zu können sowie zu Statistik-und Analysezwecken (Web-Tracking). Kristallnacht: Nov. 9-10, 1938; The Night The Holocaust Began.  The majority went to other European countries, the U.S. and Mandatory Palestine, and at least 14,000 made it to Shanghai, China. November 1938 wird im Einigungsvertrag 1990 (Abs.  Some Nazis helped Jews during the Kristallnacht. "Heydrich's secret instructions regarding the riots in November 1938", "Die "Kristallnacht"-Lüge - Die Ereignisse vom 9./10. "The sovereigns", Kibbutz Kfar Blum (Palestine), 1945, p. 171 cited in Gilbert, op.cit., p 67. " Conditions in the refugee camps "were so bad that some actually tried to escape back into Germany and were shot", recalled a British woman who was sent to help those who had been expelled.. Herder, Freiburg 2019, ISBN 978-3-451 … , Kristallnacht changed the nature of the Nazi persecution of Jews from economic, political, and social to physical with beatings, incarceration, and murder; the event is often referred to as the beginning of the Holocaust. The extent of the damage done on Kristallnacht was so great that many Germans are said to have expressed their disapproval of it, and to have described it as senseless. Aber auch der Widerstand gegen … 1939 "Ninotchka" with Greta Garbo premieres. Insbesondere das Vorgehen gegen die Juden radikalisiert sich und findet einen vorläufigen Gipfelpunkt im Pogrom des 9. Actress Greta Garbo. Im kommenden Jahr fällt das Datum auf einen Dienstag. They waited there in harsh conditions to be allowed to enter Poland. On the morning of Monday, 7 November 1938, he purchased a revolver and a box of bullets, then went to the German embassy and asked to see an embassy official. " Geschichte und Geschichten Feiner Lebenswelt in der Mitte Berlins (Gesellschaft Hackesche Höfe e.V. At a conference on the day after the pogrom, Hermann Göring said: "The Jewish problem will reach its solution if, in anytime soon, we will be drawn into war beyond our border—then it is obvious that we will have to manage a final account with the Jews.  From its inception, Hitler's régime moved quickly to introduce anti-Jewish policies. Germany's chancellor has described the pogroms of November 9, 1938 — better known as Kristallnacht — as a shameful part of German history. It was called Pogromnacht. Im August 1919 tritt die Weimarer Verfassung in Kraft. Mit dem deutschen Überfall auf Polen begann am 1. The German power metal band Masterplan's debut album, Masterplan (2003), features an anti-Nazi song entitled "Crystal Night" as the fourth track. Minna and Aron Zack's passport, issued in October 1938 in Neidenburg, Germany, and valid for one year only.  Their seventeen-year-old son Herschel was living in Paris with an uncle.  Jewish homes were ransacked all throughout Germany. , Former German Kaiser Wilhelm II commented "For the first time, I am ashamed to be German.". Am 3. (ed. Many of the destroyed remains of Jewish property plundered during Kristallnacht were dumped near Brandenburg. , In 2014, the Wall Street Journal published a letter from billionaire Thomas Perkins that compared the "progressive war on the American one percent" of wealthiest Americans and the Occupy movement's "demonization of the rich" to the Kristallnacht and anti-semitism in Nazi Germany. On November 9–10, 1938, Nazi leaders unleashed a series of pogroms against the Jewish population in Germany and recently incorporated territories. Das Kalenderblatt zum 9.November 1938: Der 9. im November des Jahres 1938 fiel auf den Wochentag Mittwoch und war der 313. " The Israeli historian Saul Friedländer believes that Goebbels had personal reasons for wanting to bring about Kristallnacht. November 1938 in Deutschland? Grynszpan and vom Rath had become intimate after they met in Le Boeuf sur le Toit, which was a popular meeting place for gay men at the time. It was the outbreak of mass violence against Jews which was to end in their mass murder.   Beginning in 1933, the German government enacted a series of anti-Jewish laws restricting the rights of German Jews to earn a living, to enjoy full citizenship and to gain education, including the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service of 7 April 1933, which forbade Jews to work in the civil service. November 1918 ungeschehen machen würde. The son of a US consular official heard the janitor of his block cry: "They must have emptied the insane asylums and penitentiaries to find people who'd do things like that!". November 1938 und 1989: Die Deutschen wollen nur feiern. On 9 November 1938 more than 1,000 synagogues were attacked in Germany and Austria. , The reaction of non-Jewish Germans to Kristallnacht was varied. . Many Jews were arrested, some were beaten, and some were even killed.  This included German-born Jews of foreign citizenship.  During the events of Kristallnacht, several Gauleiter and deputy Gauleiters had refused orders to enact the Kristallnacht, and many leaders of the SA and of the Hitler Youth also openly refused party orders, while expressing disgust. November: 9. 28 Jahre war die Berliner Mauer Symbol der deutschen Teilung und des Kalten Krieges. , The Zionist leadership in the British Mandate of Palestine wrote in February 1938 that according to "a very reliable private source—one which can be traced back to the highest echelons of the SS leadership", there was "an intention to carry out a genuine and dramatic pogrom in Germany on a large scale in the near future"..